In a large glass measuring cup, add hot water from tap, and test temperature with digital thermometer. When correct temperature of 113 -155 degrees is achieved, add the sugar and yeast and mix to dissolve. Let stand, covered for 5 - 10 minutes, or until foamy. Add ⅓ cup olive oil to yeast after bloomed.
Whisk the flour, salt, and rosemary leaves together in a medium bowl until evenly distributed. Add 3 1/2 cups of flour/salt mixture to the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with a dough hook. Add the yeast mixture and mix until a dough starts to form. If the dough is too wet add 1 - 2 tablespoons of flour at a time until sticky. Do not let the dough get too dry or it will be dense. Let knead for about 5 minutes in total. Remove the dough from the mixer and knead a few more times by hand on a floured board to form a smooth ball.
Add 1 tablespoon of olive oil to a large glass bowl and swirl around to coat the sides. Place the dough in the oiled bowl and roll it around in the bowl to fully coat the dough ball. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and a tea towel. Let it rise until doubled about 2 hours. Note: I usually place the covered bowl in an “off” oven with the light on for consistent results.
Preheat oven to 400 degrees. Line a sheet pan with parchment or a Silicone mat.
Punch down risen dough with your fist to remove the air pockets. Transfer the dough to the sheet pan.
Using your fingers, spread the dough out to form a rectangle slightly smaller than the size of the sheet pan.
Loosely cover the pan with plastic wrap and let dough rise for 20 more minutes.
Once dough has risen, randomly poke many holes in the dough with your fingertips. The dimples will hold small pools of olive oil that give focaccia its traditional look and taste.
Press whole black olives into the dough so that each slice of focaccia gets at least one olive. Press additional rosemary leaves into the dough for garnish. (Optional - arrange artichoke quarters. Lightly sprinkle grated parmesan cheese on top if desired).
Drizzle 2 tablespoons of olive oil on top of the dough allowing it pool in the dimples. Sprinkle ½ tablespoon of coarse salt on top.
Place sheet pan in middle rack of heated oven and bake for 20 minutes or until the top is light golden brown.
Remove from oven and let cool for 5 minutes.
Transfer the focaccia to a cutting board and slice into squares before serving.